Further Biographical Context for Chang Xugong
Born in 1957, Chang Xugong was primarily inspired by the 1970s. The 1970s were a period of consolidation and progress in the arts, most often defined as a response to the dominant tensions of the preceding decade. Conceptual art emerged as a key movement, and was in part an evolution of and response to minimalism. Land Art took the works of art into the sprawling outdoors, taking creative production away from commodities and engaging with the earliest ideas of environmentalism. Process art combined elements of conceptualism with other formal considerations, creating cryptic and experimental bodies of work. Expressive figurative painting began to regain importance for the first time since the decline of Abstract Expressionism twenty years prior, especially in Germany where Gerhard Richter, Anselm Kiefer, Georg Baselitz became highly powerful figures worldwide. A number of the artists who gained fame and successful in the 1960s remained dominant figures. For example, Andy Warhol branched out into film and magazine publishing, the first type of pan cultural activity for a visual artist. This secured his reputation as a globally renowned celebrity in his own right. The largely Italian Arte Povera Movement gained global recognition during the 1970s, with artists like Jannis Kounnelis, Mario Merz, and Michelangelo Pistoletto attaining global praise.