César Martinez

1944 · United States

Artist biography

César Martinez is regarded as a well established artist, who originates from the United States. César Martinez was born in 1944. Some of the artist's contemporaries that are born around the same year and in the same country include Chuck Close, Robert Mappelthorpe, Bruce Nauman, Laurie Andersen and Barbara Kruger.

César Martinez' Gallery representation

César Martinez is represented and exhibited by Noire Gallery located in Turin, Italy.

Historical Context of United States

The United States has been a prominent country in the development of modern and contemporary art in the twentieth century, particularly in the post war era, when the cultural prominence of New York asserted its influence over Paris, previously thought of as the most powerful art centre worldwide. Leading art movements developed and fostered in significant ways throughout the United States include Abstract Expressionism in various forms, Pop Art, including its West and East Coast branches, Minimalism, Conceptual Art, Neo-Expressionism, Graffiti and Street Art, plus a multitude of post-modern echoes of these many types. In the modern and contemporary sphere, the United States has cultivated a strong influence upon the visual culture of the World, due to the dominion of its economic and political institutions. Key examples of world renowned U.S artists of the modern and contemporary period include Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko, Jasper Johns, Robert Rauschenberg, Cy Twombly, Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, Frank Stella, Donald Judd, Cindy Sherman, Barbara Kruger, Julian Schnabel, Jean-Michel Basquiat and Keith Haring.

Further Biographical Context for César Martinez

César Martinez was born in 1944 and was largely influenced by the 1960s. The astronomical impact of the 1960s was truly astonishing across the globe. Representative of a time inspiring both hope and anger, the 1960s triggered an explosion of cutting-edge philosophies and movements, truly exciting and ground-breaking. Historically set in the context of the Cold War, which would have a highly powerful impact globally, largely defined by the Iron Curtain dividing Europe both physically and spiritually, and significantly marked by the erection of the Berlin Wall in 1961. The 1960s re-defined all pre-existing expectations on gender, race and justice, questioned education as well as morality and selfhood – for instance through the civil rights movement and second wave of feminism, as well as student political uprisings. The incredible escalation of mass consumerism also defined the era, engendering new trends in marketing and advertising. Minimalism established the central idea that art should exist in its own reality, and not try to mimic the physical world. Born of a desire to obliterate all pre-established notions about art, Minimalism turned into a radically progressive movement, highly influential worldwide, with artists such as Frank Stella, Donald Judd and Dan Flavin as key figures. Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland and Helen Frankenthaler were artists who sought to explore further some of the most fundamental ideologies of Abstract Expressionism, while eliminating the emotional and highly personal aspect it would often associated with it. This led to the creation of Colour Field painting, deeply relating to Minimalism. The iconic contemporary art movements that reverberated through the wave of radicalism of the 1960s also had their own nuances and scopes, distinctive to different regions or countries. Spatialism, for example, was founded in Italy by Lucio Fontana and Piero Manzoni, and its ideologies adopted by the Zero group in Germany. Across Europe, the philosophy of Existentialism deeply influenced artists such as Francis Bacon and Alberto Giacometti, who sought to portray the raw human emotions often connected to reflections on death and the haunting anxiety of the meaninglessness of life.