1947 · Netherlands
Teun Hocks is an established artist, who originates from the Netherlands, like other well-known artists such as Thijs Van Geloven, George Korsmit, Daniel Van Straalen, Mies Olthuis , and Susan Kooi. Teun Hocks was born in 1947.
Galleries and Exhibitions
Teun Hocks' work is on display in two galleries, which are Galerie Patricia Dorfmann in Paris, France and TORCH in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Teun Hocks' work has most recently been exhibited at TORCH in Amsterdam (23 February 2019 until 30 March 2019) with the exhibition Day In, Day Out / Dag in, dag uit.
Historical Context of Netherlands
The Netherlands has been established as an artistic and cultural centre for centuries, for instance through the international influence of renowned artists such as Jan van Eyck in the fifteenth century. In the 1600s, the Dutch Golden Age saw the rise of such distinguished artists as Rembrandt, Rubens, Vermeer, Van Dyck and Van Ruisdael. Dutch artist Vincent Van Gogh is considered as one of the most significant forerunners of the post-Impressionist era and is still regarded as an extraordinary, unprecedented painter that has influenced the art sphere regardless of any era or movement. At first established as a magazine, De Stijl was a movement that established abstract art in the Netherlands, driven by Piet Mondrian and Theo van Doesberg. De Stijl artists would espouse a visual language solely composed of geometrical shapes, and the movement also had a significant influence on modern architecture as well as design. Gerrit Rietveld was a powerful architect and designer who adopted the ideals and the essence of De Stijl in his work. Willem de Kooning was also a Dutch national, though he migrated to the United States in the earlier years of his life, and his work was predominantly influenced by the Abstract Expressionism movement thriving in New York City in the late 1940s and 1950s.
Further Biographical Context for Teun Hocks
Born in 1947, Teun Hocks' creative work was primarily inspired by the 1960s. Art turned into a vehicle for ideologies and other agendas, with Pop and Minimalism appearing simultaneously as the most defining art movements of the decade. Pop Art in New York city embraced the culture of mass media and mass consumerism, with Artists such as Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein and Tom Wesselmann getting stimulated by television, comic strips, billboards and other products of the rise of Capitalism for their artworks. On the other side of the country, the West Coast in California, the first features of what would be known as Conceptual art were blossoming. Minimalism developed the crucial idea that art should exist in its own reality, and not try to mimic the physical world. Born of a desire to eradicate all pre-established conceptions about art, Minimalism turned into a radically progressive movement, highly influential worldwide, with artists such as Frank Stella, Donald Judd and Dan Flavin as key actors. Minimalism became influential through the works of artists such as Victor Vasarely and Bridget Riley, while Pop art was a fundamental by-product of the latter, at the same time critiquing and glorifying popular culture. The iconic contemporary art movements that echoed through the wave of radicalism of the 1960s also had their own nuances and scopes, distinctive to different areas or countries. Spatialism, for instance, was established in Italy by Lucio Fontana and Piero Manzoni, and its ideologies adopted by the Zero group in Germany. Across Europe, the ideologies of Existentialism deeply influenced artists like Francis Bacon and Alberto Giacometti, who strived to depict the raw human emotions often associated with reflections on death and the lingering anxiety of the meaninglessness of life.