Further Biographical Context for Rafael Muyor
Rafael Muyor was born in 1943 and was as deeply indebted to the events of the 1960s as their formative influences. Historically established in the context of the Cold War, the 1960s represent an extremely influential era which generated an important number of disruptions and challenged the order of all things. In Europe, The Iron Curtain and the Berlin wall would eternally mark people and beliefs, while in the U.S, predicaments such as the Cuban missile crisis and Vietnam war would forever impact generations to come. From education to gender issues and ideologies, a re-definition of social standards in Western society followed, with ground-breaking values and movements emerging in a cradle of inventiveness. Simplicity and an emptiness of emotions were key concepts in the highly influential movement of Minimalism, embodied by artists like Frank Stella, Donald Judd and Agnes Martin. Bored of the gestural elements of Abstract Expressionism, Minimalist artists focused on producing artworks mainly composed of polished, clean lines and geometrical elements. Exploring further into some of the ideas inherent to Abstract Expressionism, artists such as Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland and Helen Frankenthaler practiced Colour Field Painting – decidedly relating to Minimalism, with a fundamentally ruled-based approach, emptied of any expressive features. Several schools of philosophy deeply influenced creatives, Francis Bacon and Alberto Giacometti were artists fundamentally seduced by the ideas of Existentialism, who achieved worldwide fame through their depiction of the human form and the anguish often linked to the human condition. Internationally, an important number of art movements resounded with the radical changes of the 1960s, often prone to their own regional distinctions. In Italy, Lucio Fontana and Piero Manzoni initiated Spatialism, while in Germany, the Zero group embraced similar ideas under the leadership of Günther Uecker.