1961 · Austria
Pichler, Monika is seen as an established contemporary artist, who originates from Austria, like other artists such as Trixi Groiss, Erjautz Manfred, Jun Yang, Anna-Sophie Berger, and Richard Zeiss. Pichler, Monika was born in 1961.
Historical Context of Austria
At the start of the 20th century, Austria was among the most pioneering and culturally progressive countries. It fostered key developments in the Arts and Crafts Movement and Art Nouveau, called Jugendstil in German, from around 1895 to 1910, forming a key bridge between the nineteenth century and the commencement of modernism. This kind of progressive, avant-garde thinking led directly into the Viennese Secession movement, one of the key art and design movements of the early twentieth century. It was formed in 1897 by a group of Austrian painters, graphic artists, sculptors and architects, including Josef Hoffman Koloman Moser, Otto Wagner, and Gustave Klimt, when artists resigned, en masse, from the Association of Austrian Artists in protest against its support for more traditional artistic styles. and an exchange of ideas with artists outside Austria, disputing artistic nationalism, renewing the decorative arts and, most crucially, creating a "total art (Gesamtkunstwerk)" that unified painting, architecture, and the decorative arts. The group was vehemently opposed to the dominance of the official Vienna Academy of the Arts (the Vienna Künstlerhaus), and official art salons, with their traditional orientation toward Historicism. Ultimately the group broke apart, the decorative artists choosing instead to focus on a new guild called the Wiener Werkstatte. In the late 1930s, Austria was annexed by the rising force of Hitler's Nazi Germany, an act known as the Anschluss, and which organised Austria into a province of a greater German Reich. During this period, like in Germany, the Avant-garde was named 'Entartete Kunst', translating to 'degenerate art', and was oppressed with only 'official' social realist art being approved, or even allowed by the state. Consequently, there was a significant exodus of creative talent who determined that their interests would be best served by relocating to London or New York. In the twentieth century, central Austrian artists included Josef Hoffman, Gustav Klimt, Egon Schiele, Herbert Bayer (the typography and graphic design pioneer of the Bauhaus), architect and designer Josef Frank, Oskar Kokoschka, Alfred Kubin, Friedensreich Hundertwasser, Maria Lassnig, Hermann Nitsch, Arnulf Rainer, Franz West and Erwin Wurm.
Further Biographical Context for Pichler, Monika
Pichler, Monika was born in 1961 and was largely influenced creatively by the 1980s. The generation of artists that grew up in, and were inspired by, the 1980s was influenced by a period of fast growing global capitalism, political upheaval, notable wealth differences, global mass media and distinctive music and fashion, including electronic pop music and hip hop. The 1980s was the era of African famine, the height of the Cold War, and also the end of it, as marked by the fall of the Berlin Wall. Important art movements of the era include Neo Geo, The Pictures Generation and the international trend of Neo-Expressionism which manifested in Germany, the USA and Italy (where it was known as Transavanguardia). The decade was exemplified by artists like Anselm Kiefer, Jörg Immendorf, Enzo Cucchi, Francesco Clemente and Julian Schnabel. Street art and graffiti started to gain prominence, notable artists of which include Jean-Michel Basquiat, Keith Haring and Kenny Scharf.