Further Biographical Context for Paul Montoya
Paul Montoya was born in 1950 and was predominantly inspired by the 1960s. The 1960s were an explosive decade internationally, witnessing a proliferation of modernist philosophies and trends. It was the era of Kennedy and Kruschev, and the start of the Cold War, which would endure for most of the second half of the twentieth century, and was characterised most symbolically by the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961. The Iron Curtain divided Eastern and Western Europe, both ideologically and literally, and student political uprisings took place globally. Psychedelia, an vast increase in consumerism, and the associated trends of marketing and advertising further defined the era. Minimalism developed a formal language with no external references, based solely on line, colour and geometric form as key constituents of both painting and sculpture. The main figures of Minimalism included Frank Stella, Donald Judd and Agnes Martin. Pop Art was a powerful offshoot of minimalism, a discipline that became renowned through the work of artists such as Victor Vasarely and Bridget Riley. Around the world many artistic movements resonated the creative concerns of the above mentioned movements, often with regional specialties and nuance. In Italy, Lucio Fontana and Piero Manzoni developed Spatialism, and in Germany the Zero group under the leadership of Gunter Uecker adopted similar ideas. The influential school of Existentialist Philosophy was an important source of inspiration for creatives, with artists like Francis Bacon and Alberto Giacometti achieving international prominence for their distinguishing approaches to the human form and the anguish related to the human condition.