Further Biographical Context for Michel Jouët
Born in 1943, Michel Jouët was primarily influenced by the 1960s. The universal impact of the 1960s was truly sensational across the globe. Illustrative of a time inspiring both faith and anger, the 1960s triggered an outburst of new ideologies and movements, truly exciting and spectacular. Historically established in the context of the Cold War, which would have a highly powerful impact worldwide, largely defined by the Iron Curtain separating Europe both physically and spiritually, and drastically marked by the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961. The 1960s re-defined all pre-existing assumptions on gender, race and justice, questioned education as well as morality and selfhood – for instance through the civil rights movement and second wave of feminism, as well as student political uprisings. The significant escalation of mass consumerism also defined the era, engendering new trends in marketing and advertising. Minimalism developed the central idea that art should exist in its own reality, and not try to represent the physical world. Born of a desire to erase all pre-established conceptions about art, Minimalism became a radically progressive movement, highly influential worldwide, with artists such as Frank Stella, Donald Judd and Dan Flavin as key figures. Minimalism became influential through the works of artists such as Victor Vasarely and Bridget Riley, while Pop art was a fundamental by-product of the latter, simultaneously critiquing and glorifying popular culture. The iconic contemporary art movements that echoed through the wave of radicalism of the 1960s also had their own nuances and scopes, particular to different areas or countries. Spatialism, for example, was established in Italy by Lucio Fontana and Piero Manzoni, and its ideologies embraced by the Zero group in Germany. Throughout Europe, the ideologies of Existentialism deeply influenced artists like Francis Bacon and Alberto Giacometti, who strived to portray the raw human emotions often associated with reflections on death and the haunting anxiety of the meaninglessness of life.