Historical Context of Italy
The classical period of the Romans has exerted a significant influence on the cultural and intellectual development of Italy, contributing to the uniqueness of the country and its splendid artistic heritage. Italy is also the country that epitomizes the Renaissance, “Riniscita” in its original language, which translates to “rebirth”. From the early 1400s, the Renaissance has been an intense era of cultural and political flourishing, engendering revivals in art, architecture, music, poetry and philosophy. Although significantly tormented by the fascism of Mussolini in the modern and contemporary era, Italy has never lost its place as one of the most essential artistic centres, home to pioneering movements such as Futurism and Arte Povera, as well as the expressive painting of the Transavanguardia and the Minimalism related to the Zero Movement. Some highly influential Italian artists from the twentieth and twenty first centuries include Giorgio Di Chirico, Giacomo Balla, Giorgio Morandi, Alberto Giacometti, Lucio Fontana, Michelangelo Pistoletto, Francesco Clemente and Mimmo Paladino.