1945 · Switzerland
Marrianne Eigenheer is seen as an established contemporary artist, who originates from Switzerland, like other celebrated artists such as Christian Lichtenberg, Cedric Eisenring, Marianne Eigenheer, Richard Paul Lohse, and Nicolas Steiner. Marrianne Eigenheer was born in 1945.
Historical Context of Switzerland
Perhaps the most significant Swiss contribution to the unravelling of Modernism was the formation of the Dada movement in Zurich in 1916. Its initial members included Hugo Ball, Tristan Tzara, Jean Arp and Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Emmy Hennings, and Marcel Janco. Their headquarters, the Cabaret Voltaire, quickly evolved into an vital centre of the artistic and intellectual avant-garde, with the political neutrality Switzerland being a shelter from political uncertainty elsewhere in Europe. precedingly, Switzerland had produced some quirky and distinctive artists in the Post-Impressionist era of the early twentieth century, including Ferdinand Hodler and Felix Vallotton. Another key movement that can be connected to a Swiss artist was the ‘International Style’ of modernist architecture, pioneered by Le Corbusier. Le Corbusier might have become a French citizen in 1930, but he was born Charles-Édouard Jeanneret in the Neuchâtel canton of Switzerland in 1887. Indeed, his first independent projects were executed in his hometown of La Chaux-de-Fonds, including proto modern domestic villas for affluent local clients. Key Swiss artists of the twentieth century include Jean Tingely, Alberto Giacometti, John Armleder, Pipilotti Rist and Thomas Hirschhorn.
Further Biographical Context for Marrianne Eigenheer
Born in 1945, Marrianne Eigenheer was largely inspired by the 1960s. In the art world, a multitude of significant changes were also taking place. Pop Art, adopting the culture of mass media through the artworks of Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein and Tom Wesselmann, was slowly breaking down the foundations on which the production and reception of art were built. Drawing from the imagery of popular culture and mass consumerism, the Pop Artists rejected the authority of highbrow art and created a revolutionary movement, while Minimalism, simultaneously appearing, was rejecting any form of emotional manifestation and focused on art’s theoretical features – aspiring to pure visual responses. Honesty and an emptiness of emotions were key concepts in the highly influential movement of Minimalism, embodied by artists like Frank Stella, Donald Judd and Agnes Martin. Uninterested in the gestural elements of Abstract Expressionism, Minimalist artists focused on producing artworks mainly gathering polished, pure lines and geometrical elements. The very first blossoming of Conceptualism was highly influenced by the purity of Minimalism but went further in rejecting all pre-defined conceptions inherent to art, similarly to what Pop Artists were trying to attain, by elevating popular culture to the status of high art. Several schools of philosophy profoundly influenced creatives, Francis Bacon and Alberto Giacometti were artists heavily seduced by the ideas of Existentialism, who achieved worldwide fame through their depiction of the human form and the lament often linked to the human condition. Internationally, an important number of art movements resonated with the radical changes of the 1960s, often prone to their own regional distinctions. In Italy, Lucio Fontana and Piero Manzoni initiated Spatialism, while in Germany, the Zero group embraced similar ideas under the leadership of Günther Uecker.