Further Biographical Context for Ma Ying
Ma Ying was born in 1959 and grew up during the 1970s and was influenced by the artistic culture of the time. Conceptualism is often perceived as a reaction to Minimalism, and the leading art movement of the 1970s, challenging the boundaries of art with its revolutionary features. The movements that ensued were all representative of a strong desire to evolve and strengthen the art world, in response to the tensions of the previous decade. Process art branched out from Conceptualism, highlighting some of its most crucial aspects, but going further in creating mysterious and experimental artistic journeys, while Land Art brought creation to the outdoors, initiating early philosophies of environmentalism. In Germany, Expressive figure painting was given another chance for the first time since the decline of Abstract Expressionism almost twenty years ago, the genre regained its prominence through the brushstrokes of Gerhard Richter, Anselm Kiefer and Georg Baselitz. The multicultural and refined position that New York city held in the 1960s remained just as influential in the 1970s. With multiple world renowned artists gravitating the galleries and downtown scene, the city once again reinforced its reputation as the artistic heart of the era. All over, numerous movements defined the 1970s. Amongst others, feminism and the innovative radical philosophies it entailed strongly influenced the visual culture. Photorealism, which had emerged in the 1960s, also gained critical and commercial success. The critical, leading artistic pillars of New York city started to embrace painters and sculptors from Latin America.