Further Biographical Context for Ma Kelu
Ma Kelu was born in 1954 and was primarily inspired creatively by the 1970s. The 1970s were a period of consolidation and development in the arts, most often defined as a response to the central strains of the previous decade. Conceptual art developed as a key movement, and was in part an evolution of and response to minimalism. Land Art took the works of art into the expansive outdoors, taking creative production away from commodities and engaging with the earliest ideas of environmentalism. Process art combined elements of conceptualism with other formal considerations, creating esoteric and experimental bodies of work. Expressive figurative painting began to regain prominence for the first time since the decline of Abstract Expressionism twenty years prior, especially in Germany where Gerhard Richter, Anselm Kiefer, Georg Baselitz became highly influential figures worldwide. New York maintained an important position in the international art scene, ensuring that global artists continued to flock to the galleries, bars and downtown scene in the city. n Japan and Korea, artists associated with the Mono-Ha movement explored on encounters between natural and industrial materials such as stone, glass, cotton, sponge, wood, oil and water, arranging them in mostly unchanged, ephemeral states. The works focused on the interplay between these various elements and the surrounding space, and had a strong interest in the European philosophy of phenomenology.