Further Biographical Context for Ma Jianpei
Born in 1959, Ma Jianpei's creative work was predominantly inspired by the 1970s. The 1970s were a period of consolidation and development in the arts, most often defined as a response to the dominant strains of the previous decade. Conceptual art developed as a influential movement, and was in part an evolution of and response to minimalism. Land Art took the works of art into the sprawling outdoors, taking creative production away from commodities and engaging with the earliest ideas of environmentalism. Process art combined elements of conceptualism with other formal reflections, creating cryptic and experimental bodies of work. Expressive figurative painting began to regain prominence for the first time since the decline of Abstract Expressionism twenty years before, especially in Germany where Gerhard Richter, Anselm Kiefer, Georg Baselitz became highly renowned figures worldwide. A number of the artists who gained fame and successful in the 1960s remained leading figures. For example, Andy Warhol branched out into film and magazine publishing, the first type of pan cultural activity for a visual artist. This secured his reputation as a major international celebrity in his own right. International movements gained importance included feminism, which translated strongly into the visual culture, and photorealism which had begun in the 1960s and enjoyed substantial commercial and critical success. For the first time painters and sculptors from Latin America were embraced by the leading critical and institutional levers in New York.