Further Biographical Context for Juan Moral
Born in 1941, Juan Moral was primarily inspired by the 1960s. The astronomical impact of the 1960s was truly sensational across the globe. Evocative of a time inspiring both faith and anger, the 1960s prompted an explosion of cutting-edge ideologies and movements, truly sensational and spectacular. Historically established in the context of the Cold War, which would have a highly powerful impact worldwide, largely defined by the Iron Curtain dividing Europe both physically and spiritually, and significantly marked by the erection of the Berlin Wall in 1961. The 1960s re-defined all pre-existing assumptions on gender, race and justice, questioned education as well as morality and selfhood – for instance through the civil rights movement and second wave of feminism, as well as student political uprisings. The significant boom of mass consumerism also defined the era, engendering new trends in marketing and advertising. Minimalism established the crucial idea that art should subsist in its own reality, and not try to mimic the real world. Born of a desire to obliterate all pre-established conceptions about art, Minimalism turned into a radically progressive movement, highly influential worldwide, with artists such as Frank Stella, Donald Judd and Dan Flavin as key actors. Minimalism became significant through the works of artists such as Victor Vasarely and Bridget Riley, while Pop art was an essential by-product of the latter, simultaneously critiquing and glorifying popular culture. The iconic contemporary art movements that echoed through the wave of radicalism of the 1960s also had their own distinctions and scopes, distinctive to different regions or countries. Spatialism, for instance, was founded in Italy by Lucio Fontana and Piero Manzoni, and its ideologies embraced by the Zero group in Germany. Across Europe, the philosophy of Existentialism strongly influenced artists like Francis Bacon and Alberto Giacometti, who strived to portray the raw human emotions often associated with reflections on death and the haunting angst of the meaninglessness of life.