Further Biographical Context for Joyce Moty
Born in 1943, Joyce Moty was predominantly influenced by the 1960s. Artistically, the decade began with the twin movements of Pop and Minimalism emerging parallel to each other. On one hand, Pop championed the visual culture of the mainstream and mass media, and of products and consumerism. Artwork by artists like Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, Tom Wesselmann and Claes Oldenberg was inspired by the popular culture of the rapidly developing Capitalism of the United States, using things like advertising, comic books and ideas surrounding celebrity culture as their primary visual inspiration. A parallel movement was established on the West Coast in California - a strain that also related to language in art, and is viewed as the very first blossoming of conceptual art. Minimalism developed a formal language with no external references, based solely on line, colour and geometric form as key components of both painting and sculpture. The main figures of Minimalism included Frank Stella, Donald Judd and Agnes Martin. Colour Field painting, as practiced by Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland and Helen Frankenthaler, further developed some of the expressive philosophies of Abstract Expressionism, but stripped away much of the rhetoric, instead approaching a more rule-based approach to surface and colour that associated this practice with Minimalism. Around the world many artistic movements resonated the artistic concerns of the above mentioned movements, often with regional specialties and nuance. In Italy, Lucio Fontana and Piero Manzoni established Spatialism, and in Germany the Zero group under the leadership of Gunter Uecker espoused similar ideas. The influential school of Existentialist Philosophy was an important source of inspiration for creatives, with artists like Francis Bacon and Alberto Giacometti achieving international prominence for their idiosyncratic approaches to the human form and the anguish related to the human condition.