1947 · United States
Jock Sturges is an established contemporary visual artist, who originates from the United States. Jock Sturges was born in 1947. Born in the same country and around the same year are Chuck Close, Robert Mappelthorpe, Bruce Nauman, Laurie Andersen and Barbara Kruger.
Historical Context of United States
The United States, particularly New York city, remains as a focal point that has played a significant role in developing modern and contemporary art in the twentieth century. The concept of New York as a new multinational and highly powerful art hub emerged in the post war era, and the city thrived in affirming its dominance over Paris, which used to be considered as the most powerful global art centre. The authority of the political and economic institutions of the United States in the modern era has granted the country with a prevailing influence on the visual culture of the world. Abstract Expressionism, Pop Art, Minimalism, Conceptual Art, Neo-Expressionism, Graffiti and Street Art, are essential art movements that flourished in the US. These very movements also echoed into a myriad of variations, such as alternative forms of Abstract Expressionism, as well as East and West Coast adaptations of Pop Art, among others. Some internationally distinguished U.S artists of the modern age include Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko, Jasper Johns, Robert Rauschenberg, Cy Twombly, Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, Frank Stella, Donald Judd, Cindy Sherman, Barbara Kruger, Julian Schnabel, Jean-Michel Basquiat and Keith Haring.
Further Biographical Context for Jock Sturges
Jock Sturges was born in 1947 and was predominantly influenced by the 1960s growing up. Historically established in the context of the Cold War, the 1960s epitomize an extremely influential era which engendered an important number of breaks and questioned the order of all things. In Europe, The Iron Curtain and the Berlin wall would permanently mark people and beliefs, while in the U.S, predicaments such as the Cuban missile crisis and Vietnam war would forever influence generations to come. From education to gender issues and ideologies, a re-definition of social standards in Western society ensued, with revolutionary philosophies and movements emerging in a cradle of inventiveness. Honesty and an void of emotions were key concepts in the highly influential movement of Minimalism, represented by artists like Frank Stella, Donald Judd and Agnes Martin. Uninterested in the gestural elements of Abstract Expressionism, Minimalist artists focused on delivering artworks mainly composed of polished, clean lines and geometrical elements. The very first blossoming of Conceptualism was significantly influenced by the simplicity of Minimalism but went further in rejecting all pre-defined conceptions inherent to art, similarly to what Pop Artists were trying to achieve by elevating popular culture to the status of high art. Several schools of philosophy profoundly influenced creatives, Francis Bacon and Alberto Giacometti were artists heavily seduced by the ideologies of Existentialism, who achieved worldwide fame through their depiction of the human form and the anguish often linked to the human condition. Internationally, an important number of art movements resonated with the radical changes of the 1960s, often prone to their own regional distinctions. In Italy, Lucio Fontana and Piero Manzoni created Spatialism, while in Germany, the Zero group espoused similar ideas under the leadership of Günther Uecker.