Further Biographical Context for João Machado
João Machado was born in 1942 and was predominantly influenced by the 1960s. The astronomical impact of the 1960s was truly sensational across the globe. Illustrative of a time inspiring both hope and anger, the 1960s triggered an explosion of new ideologies and movements, truly exciting and spectacular. Historically set in the context of the Cold War, which would have a highly powerful impact internationally, mainly defined by the Iron Curtain separating Europe both physically and spiritually, and drastically marked by the erection of the Berlin Wall in 1961. The 1960s re-defined all pre-existing assumptions on gender, race and justice, questioned education as well as morality and selfhood – for instance through the civil rights movement and second wave of feminism, as well as student political uprisings. The incredible escalation of mass consumerism also defined the era, engendering new trends in marketing and advertising. Minimalism established the crucial idea that art should exist in its own reality, and not try to represent the real world. Born of a desire to eradicate all pre-established notions about art, Minimalism turned into a radically progressive movement, highly influential worldwide, with artists such as Frank Stella, Donald Judd and Dan Flavin as key figures. Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland and Helen Frankenthaler were artists who sought to explore further some of the most fundamental ideologies of Abstract Expressionism, while eliminating the expressive and highly personal aspect it would usually entail with it. This led to the creation of Colour Field painting, deeply relating to Minimalism. The iconic contemporary art movements that echoed through the wave of radicalism of the 1960s also had their own distinctions and scopes, distinctive to different areas or countries. Spatialism, for example, was founded in Italy by Lucio Fontana and Piero Manzoni, and its ideologies embraced by the Zero group in Germany. Throughout Europe, the ideologies of Existentialism strongly influenced artists such as Francis Bacon and Alberto Giacometti, who sought to depict the raw human emotions often connected to reflections on death and the lingering anxiety of the meaninglessness of life.