Further Biographical Context for Jane Caro
Jane Caro was born in 1949 and was as deeply indebted to the events of the 1960s as their formative influences. Artistically, the decade began with the twin movements of Pop and Minimalism emerging at a similar time. On one hand, Pop advocated the visual culture of the mainstream and mass media, and of products and consumerism. Artwork by artists such as Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, Tom Wesselmann and Claes Oldenberg was inspired by the popular culture of the fast developing Capitalism of the United States, taking things like advertising, comic books and ideas surrounding celebrity culture as their primary visual cues. A parallel movement developed on the West Coast in California - a strain that also related to language in art, and is viewed as the initial flowerings of conceptual art. Minimalism developed a formal language with no external references, based solely on line, colour and geometric form as key constituents of both painting and sculpture. The key figures of Minimalism included Frank Stella, Donald Judd and Agnes Martin. Colour Field painting, as practiced by Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland and Helen Frankenthaler, further explored some of the expressive notions of Abstract Expressionism, but reduced much of the rhetoric, instead approaching a more rule-based approach to surface and colour that related this practice to Minimalism. Around the world many artistic movements echoed the creative concerns of the previously mentioned movements, often with regional fortes and nuance. In Italy, Lucio Fontana and Piero Manzoni developed Spatialism, and in Germany the Zero group under the leadership of Gunter Uecker adopted similar ideas. The influential school of Existentialist Philosophy was an important source of creativity for artists, with artists like Francis Bacon and Alberto Giacometti becoming known worldwide for their distinctive approaches to the human form and the angst related to the human condition.