Historical Context of Belgium
Throughout the 1930s, Belgian art was to play a essential role in Surrealism, particularly through the work of Rene Magritte and Paul Delvaux. Other important Belgian artists of the 20th century include Marcel Broodthaers, Wim Delvoye, Francis Alys and Luc Tuymans. In the late nineteenth century, as the period of the avant-garde in Europe began, the Belgian capital of Brussels was a significant hub for the Art Nouveau movement, which included the architect Victor Horta amongst its founders. The Symbolist movement was also a significant artistic trend that was greatly influenced by Belgian artists. Key practitioners of this important early precursor to Surrealism include Léon Spilliaert, Jean Delville, Fernand Khnopff and James Ensor.