Further Biographical Context for Francisco Conesa
Francisco Conesa was born in 1948, grew up during the 1960s and was inspired by the artistic atmosphere of the time. The universal impact of the 1960s was truly sensational across the globe. Illustrative of a time stirring both hope and anger, the 1960s prompted an explosion of new philosophies and movements, truly exciting and spectacular. Historically set in the context of the Cold War, which would have a highly influential impact globally, mainly defined by the Iron Curtain separating Europe both physically and spiritually, and significantly marked by the erection of the Berlin Wall in 1961. The 1960s re-defined all pre-existing assumptions on gender, race and justice, questioned education as well as morality and selfhood – for instance through the civil rights movement and second wave of feminism, as well as student political uprisings. The significant escalation of mass consumerism also defined the era, generating new trends in marketing and advertising. Minimalism developed the central idea that art should exist in its own reality, and not try to represent the real world. Born of a desire to erase all pre-established conceptions about art, Minimalism turned into a radically progressive movement, highly influential worldwide, with artists such as Frank Stella, Donald Judd and Dan Flavin as key actors. Minimalism became influential through the works of artists such as Victor Vasarely and Bridget Riley, while Pop art was an essential by-product of the latter, simultaneously critiquing and glorifying popular culture. The iconic contemporary art movements that echoed through the wave of radicalism of the 1960s also had their own nuances and scopes, particular to different regions or countries. Spatialism, for instance, was founded in Italy by Lucio Fontana and Piero Manzoni, and its ideologies adopted by the Zero group in Germany. Throughout Europe, the philosophy of Existentialism strongly influenced artists such as Francis Bacon and Alberto Giacometti, who sought to depict the raw human emotions often connected to reflections on death and the lingering angst of the meaninglessness of life.