Further Biographical Context for Eleanor Hart
Born in 1946, Eleanor Hart was largely influenced by the 1960s growing up. The astronomical impact of the 1960s was truly sensational across the globe. Illustrative of a time inspiring both hope and anger, the 1960s triggered an outburst of cutting-edge philosophies and movements, truly sensational and spectacular. Historically established in the context of the Cold War, which would have a highly influential impact worldwide, mainly defined by the Iron Curtain dividing Europe both physically and spiritually, and significantly marked by the erection of the Berlin Wall in 1961. The 1960s re-defined all pre-existing expectations on gender, race and justice, questioned education as well as morality and selfhood – for instance through the civil rights movement and second wave of feminism, as well as student political uprisings. The incredible escalation of mass consumerism also defined the era, engendering new trends in marketing and advertising. Minimalism developed the central idea that art should subsist in its own reality, and not try to represent the physical world. Born of a desire to obliterate all pre-established notions about art, Minimalism became a radically progressive movement, highly influential worldwide, with artists such as Frank Stella, Donald Judd and Dan Flavin as key actors. Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland and Helen Frankenthaler were artists who sought to explore further some of the most fundamental ideologies of Abstract Expressionism, while getting rid of the expressive and highly personal aspect it would often associated with it. This led to the creation of Colour Field painting, deeply identifying with Minimalism. The iconic contemporary art movements that echoed through the wave of radicalism of the 1960s also had their own distinctions and scopes, particular to different areas or countries. Spatialism, for instance, was established in Italy by Lucio Fontana and Piero Manzoni, and its ideologies adopted by the Zero group in Germany. Throughout Europe, the ideologies of Existentialism deeply influenced artists such as Francis Bacon and Alberto Giacometti, who sought to depict the raw human emotions often connected to reflections on death and the lingering anxiety of the meaninglessness of life.