Further Biographical Context for Chu Jian
Born in 1957, Chu Jian was primarily influenced by the 1970s. The 1970s were a period of consolidation and growth in the arts, most often defined as a response to the dominant strains of the previous decade. Conceptual art developed as a key movement, a partial evolution of and response to minimalism. Land Art took the works of art into the extensive outdoors, taking creative production away from commodities and engaging with the earliest ideas of environmentalism. Process art combined elements of conceptualism with other formal reflections, creating cryptic and experimental bodies of work. Expressive figurative painting began to regain prominence for the first time since the decline of Abstract Expressionism twenty years prior, especially in Germany where Gerhard Richter, Anselm Kiefer, Georg Baselitz became highly powerful figures worldwide. A number of the artists who gained fame and successful in the 1960s remained dominant figures. For example, Andy Warhol branched out into film and magazine publishing, the first kind of cross cultural activity for a visual artist. This secured his reputation as a major international celebrity in his own right. n Japan and Korea, artists associated with the Mono-Ha movement explored on encounters between natural and industrial materials such as stone, glass, cotton, sponge, wood, oil and water, arranging them in mostly unchanged, fleeting states. The works focused on the interdependency of these various elements and the surrounding space, and had a strong focus upon the European philosophy of phenomenology.