1924 · Spain
Eduardo Chillida in private collections
Historical Context of Spain
Spain has played a crucial role in the development of art in the twentieth century. In the early 1900s, a young Pablo Picasso established a distinctively expressive approach to figuration in the post-Impressionist era, initially with his Blue then Rose periods, although he was to settle in Paris in 1904. Picasso was also the chief founding member of the Cubist movement, a group in which he was joined by fellow Spaniard Juan Gris. Both Salvador Dali and Joan Miro were leading figures in the Surrealist movement, though they were also domiciled in France for large parts of their careers.
During the twentieth century the political and cultural landscape of Spain was ruled by the totalitarian autocracy of General Franco whose dictatorship ruled the country, in one form or another, from 1939 until 1975, at which time the monarchy was restored to Juan-Carlos I who then implemented substantial reform. The Franco regime was noted for its brutal anti-communist stance, and the departure of important intellectual and cultural figures that chose not to live under an oppressive regime. The cultural life of the avant-garde suffered greatly, since liberal artistic movements are often noted for their leftist leanings. Significant modern and contemporary Spanish artists include Antoni Tapíes, Eduardo Chillida, Eduardo Arroyo, and Manolo Valdes.
Further Biographical Context for Eduardo Chillida
Eduardo Chillida was born in 1924 and was predominantly inspired creatively by the 1950s. Abstract Expressionism, a form of painting that explored ideas of spirituality and the sublime, dominated the 1950s. Many artists focused on the formal properties of painting, and action painting was influenced by the political freedom of the United States, as opposed to the strict strictures of the Soviet bloc.
New York City became the focus for modernism on an international scale during the Post-War period. Many artists had travelled to the city during the Second World War, fleeing in exile from Europe. This led to a significant pooling of talent and ideas. Influential Europeans such as Piet Mondrian, Josef Albers and Hans Hoffmann provided inspiration for American artists whilst in New York, and influenced cultural growth in the United States for many later decades.
Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Mark Rothko, Frank Kline, Barnett Newman, Clyfford Still and Adolph Gottlieb were influential artists of this time. The male dominated environment has been subsequently revisited to acknowledge the contributions of female artists such as Lee Krasner, Joan Mitchell, and Louise Bourgeois, amongst others.
- Galleries Representing this Artist