Further Biographical Context for Carla Castaldo
Carla Castaldo was born in 1943 and was primarily influenced by the 1960s growing up. In the art world, a multitude of significant changes were also taking place. Pop Art, embodying the culture of mass media through the artworks of Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein and Tom Wesselmann, was slowly breaking down the bases on which the creation and reception of art were built. Getting inspired from the imagery of popular culture and mass consumerism, the Pop Artists refuted the authority of highbrow art and created a cutting-edge movement, while Minimalism, simultaneously appearing, was rejecting any form of emotional expression and focused on art’s theoretical features – aiming for pure visual responses. Simplicity and an void of emotions were key concepts in the highly influential movement of Minimalism, embodied by artists like Frank Stella, Donald Judd and Agnes Martin. Bored of the gestural elements of Abstract Expressionism, Minimalist artists focused on producing artworks mainly composed of polished, pure lines and geometrical elements. The very first blossoming of Conceptualism was highly influenced by the simplicity of Minimalism but went further in rejecting all pre-defined conceptions inherent to art, similarly to what Pop Artists were trying to achieve by uplifting popular culture to the status of high art. Several schools of philosophy deeply influenced creatives, Francis Bacon and Alberto Giacometti were artists heavily persuaded by the ideologies of Existentialism, who achieved worldwide success through their depiction of the human form and the anguish often linked to the human condition. Internationally, an important number of art movements resounded with the radical changes of the 1960s, often prone to their own regional distinctions. In Italy, Lucio Fontana and Piero Manzoni initiated Spatialism, while in Germany, the Zero group espoused similar ideas under the leadership of Günther Uecker.