1955 - 2003
Further Biographical Context for Bruno Calmels
Bruno Calmels was born in 1955 and was predominantly influenced by the 1970s growing up. The art sphere of the 1970s was characterized by a wish to grow and reinforce itself, as a reaction to the many conflicts of the previous decade. One of the most important movement of the 1970s was Conceptualism, which appeared as an offshoot of Minimalism, while the experimental, creative journey of Process art emerged by combining essential aspects of Conceptualism with further reflections on art itself. The earliest ideas of environmentalism bounced from Land Art, which took art into earth itself, carving the land and bringing art to the outdoors. For the first time since the decline of Abstract Expressionism, Expressive figure painting slowly resurfaced and regained its status, predominantly in Germany through the works of critically acclaimed figures Gerhard Richter, Anselm Kiefer and Georg Baselitz. Most of the dominant artistic figures of the 1960s remained highly influential and admired throughout the 1970s. Andy Warhol, for example, fortified his reputation as a legendary artist, by branching out into film and magazine publishing, thus introducing a ground-breaking concept of cross-cultural activity for a visual artist of such fame. Towards the end of the 1970s, street art, developing from graffiti, was starting to truly fascinate the fine art community. Keith Haring and Jean-Michel Basquiat helped legitimize spray painting and tagging, proving that their artworks could exist at the same time in art galleries and in urban settings. Following, the global extent of street art would become extremely significant, representing an extraordinary form of artistic expression.