1926 - 2011 · Spain
Aurèlia Muñoz was a creative artist, who was born in Spain. Born in 1926, Aurèlia Muñoz passed away in 2011. Born in the same country and of the same generation are Antoni Tapies, Eduardo Chillida and Eduardo Arroyo.
Historical Context of Spain
Spain has played a crucial role in the growth of art in the twentieth century. In the early 1900s, a young Pablo Picasso developed a uniquely expressive approach to figuration in the post-Impressionist era, firstly with his Blue then Rose periods, although he was to settle in Paris in 1904. Picasso was also the central founding member of the Cubist movement, a group in which he was joined by fellow Spaniard Juan Gris. Both Salvador Dali and Joan Miro were leading figures in the Surrealist movement, though they were also lived in France for large parts of their careers.
Throughout the twentieth century the political and cultural landscape of Spain was dominated by the totalitarian autocracy of General Franco whose dictatorship ruled the country, in one form or another, from 1939 until 1975, at which time the monarchy was restored to Juan-Carlos I who then implemented considerable reform. The Franco regime was distinguished by its brutal anti-communist stance, and the departure of leading intellectual and cultural figures that elected not to live under an oppressive regime. The cultural life of the avant-garde suffered greatly, since liberal artistic movements are often known for their leftist leanings. Important modern and contemporary Spanish artists include Antoni Tapíes, Eduardo Chillida, Eduardo Arroyo, and Manolo Valdes.
Further Biographical Context for Aurèlia Muñoz
Born in 1926, Aurèlia Muñoz' creative work was largely inspired by the 1930s. During the 1930s, many political ideologies such as Marxist Socialism, Capitalist Democracy, and the Totalitarianism of both Communism and Fascism were engaged in struggles for dominance, and characterised the political atmosphere of the era.
In Europe, Surrealism continued to be prevail, and had grown to have influence worldwide. Leading artists took the ideas posed by Surrealism and incorporated them into their radical political philosophies, creating a new kind of magic realism. This was exemplified in the work of artists such as Frida Kahlo and Diego Riviera in Mexico.
In the United States, the Great Depression had a major impact on artistic output, and artists began to focus on the idea of humility and of the ordinary man on the streets. The focus of art in the United States also began to take a more political turn for the first time, and artists used these subjects and ideas to attempt to impact society. Themes such as poverty, lack of affordable housing, anti-lynching, anti-fascism, and workers' strikes became prevalent in the work of many artists.
In the Soviet Union, Stalin’s government was in dire need of urgent funds to implement the industrialisation of the Five Year Plan. In a stealthy bid to acquire funds, the government proposed to sell off treasures from the State Hermitage Museum in Leningrad (St. Petersburg), which included some two hundred and fifty paintings by the Old Masters, a number of which had been deemed irreplaceable. Many of the pieces came to be owned by Andrew Mellon, via the New York based art dealing company, Knoedler.
By the end of the decade, the Second World War had begun, having been aided by Adolf Hitler’s rise to power in Germany in 1933. This political turmoil would go on to preoccupy both artists and the global population.
- Galleries Representing this Artist